Function Objects

"Function object" usually means any of the following:

Function objects can be used with the following:

To determine whether an object appears to be callable, use one of the following:


User-defined function objects must define a Call method containing the implementation of the "function".

class YourClassName {
    Call(a, b) {  ; Declare parameters as needed, or an array*.
        return c

This applies to instances of YourClassName, such as the object returned by YourClassName(). Replacing Call with static Call would instead override what occurs when YourClassName itself is called.


The following example defines a function array which can be called; when called, it calls each element of the array in turn.

class FuncArrayType extends Array {
    Call(params*) {
        ; Call a list of functions.
        for fn in this

; Create an array of functions.
funcArray := FuncArrayType()
; Add some functions to the array (can be done at any point).
; Create an object which uses the array as a method.
obj := {method: funcArray}
; Call the method (and consequently both One and Two).
; Call it as a function.
(obj.method)("1st", "2nd")

One(param1, param2) {
Two(param1, param2) {

BoundFunc Object

Acts like a function, but just passes predefined parameters to another function.

There are two ways that BoundFunc objects can be created:

BoundFunc objects can be called as shown in the example below. When the BoundFunc is called, it calls the function or method to which it is bound, passing a combination of bound parameters and the caller's parameters. Unbound parameter positions are assigned positions from the caller's parameter list, left to right. For example:

fn := RealFn.Bind(1)  ; Bind first parameter only
fn(2)      ; Shows "1, 2"
fn.Call(3) ; Shows "1, 3"

fn := RealFn.Bind( , 1)  ; Bind second parameter only
fn(2, 0)   ; Shows "2, 1, 0"
fn.Call(3) ; Shows "3, 1"
fn(, 4)    ; Error: 'a' was omitted

RealFn(a, b, c?) {
    MsgBox a ", " b (IsSet(c) ? ", " c : "")

ObjBindMethod can be used to bind to a method even when it isn't possible to retrieve a reference to the method itself. For example:

Shell := ComObject("Shell.Application")
RunBox := ObjBindMethod(Shell, "FileRun")
; Show the Run dialog.

For a more complex example, see SetTimer.

Other properties and methods are inherited from Func, but do not reflect the properties of the target function or method (which is not required to be implemented as a function). The BoundFunc acts as an anonymous variadic function with no other formal parameters, similar to the fat arrow function below:

Func_Bind(fn, bound_args*) {
    return (args*) => (args.InsertAt(1, bound_args*), fn(args*))